What does a kidney stone look like in human body? Want to see in detail? Then, this is the best authenticated post for you.The kidneys, two organs in the shape of a bean forms a part of our urinary system and its principal function it to filter all the waste from our blood, whilst urine is created. Also see images for kidney look.
What Does A Kidney Stone Look Like and What are They
Minerals and salts which are present in our urine occasionally cling together in some people and then develop into small kidney stones. Such stones can vary from as tiny as a crystal of sugar up to the size of a golf ball. In cases where these kidney stones don’t form an obstruction, it can go unnoticed. They take on the appearance of crystalline lumps or pebbles. However when these stones are pushed into the narrow tubes called the ureters, which are connected with our bladder, severe pain can be caused.
Kidney Stones: What causes them?
An individual can develop kidney stones when there is an imbalance between the minerals, salts and water and other substances present in our urine. The inadequate consumption of water is one of the man reasons for the forming of kidney stones. Therefore, everyone should drink an ample amount of water to keep the colour or your urine either as clear as water or a light yellow. Eight up to ten glasses on a daily basis is recommended. However, it is also true that certain people suffering from a medical disorder, like gout, will be more prone to develop kidney stones.
Other factors which can attribute to developing kidney stones include:
Certain individuals are more vulnerable to develop stones due to heredity. The tendency of having high calcium levels in your urine may be inherited from the one generation to the other, as the most kidney stones are formed of calcium a condition termed hypercalciuria.
Other uncommon hereditary disorders which can play a key role include: individuals who have trouble with the metabolism process of various chemicals which can include an amino acid called cystine, in gout-sufferers (uric acid) and an organic salt (oxalate) and those suffering from renal tubular-acidosis.
The possibility exists that your diet can be or is not a factor. Individuals with the proneness to develop kidney stones should avoid a diet rich in proteins from animal sources and it is advisable to follow a diet with low levels of salt or use a substitute. In other individuals who don’t have the tendency of forming kidney stones, it is possible that their eating-regime won’t have the same affect.
- Geographic location:
The region where you live may also have an impact on your risk to form kidney stones. In the southern regions of the United States people are more prone to develop kidney stones than in other states. This susceptibility may be linked to the hot climatic conditions. In cases where individuals don’t drink enough fluids, whilst living in such hot conditions, they can be more prone to become dehydrated. With dehydration their urine can become more condensed and thus chemicals can form some closer contact which can be the start of forming a kidney stone.
- Underlying diseases:
Certain chronic disorders are also linked to the development of kidney stones, which include: inflammatory bowel-disease, renal tubular acidosis and cystic fibrosis.
Individuals using water pills (diuretics) and with a consumption of excessive antacids which contains calcium, may raise the quantity of calcium present in their urine which will most likely elevate their risk to develop kidney stones. HIV-positive patients using Crixivan (indinavir) may be susceptible developing indinavir kidney stones. An excessive intake of high levels of Vitamins D and A, may also be linked to risen calcium levels in the urine. The following medicines, generally prescribed, are also linked to a proneness to develop stones:
- Antibiotic drugs such as you can say ciprofloxacin (Cipro) & ceftriaxone (Rocephin).
- Phenytoin – Dilantin
See The Symptoms
As kidney stones pass through our urinary system, it can cause:
- Hematuria (blood visible in your urine)
- Extreme pain in the region of the belly, groin or back
- Painful as well as more frequent urination
- The occurrence of vomiting and feeling nauseous
However, it is possible with the passing of small kidney stones, there can be no symptoms.
Kidney Stones: The Diagnosis
Usually kidney stones are only diagnosed when they start to cause terrible pain. In general this severe pain forces the patients to visit the ER.
Various kinds of testing can reveal the stones. Such tests may include: X-rays; CT-scan; urinalysis or ultrasound. However, blood tests may also be conducted which can show whether high mineral-levels are elaborating in the developing of kidney stones.
The Severe Pain: Something Else or Kidney Stones?
In the occurrence of an onset of extreme pain in the region of your belly or back, consult your healthcare professional immediately. Pain in the abdomen is linked to various other disorders which include an ectopic pregnancy or appendicitis.
When you are experiencing pain during urination, it can point to an STD (sexually transmitted disease) or a UTI (urinary tract infection).
Controllable Risk Factors
As we had already mentioned, an inadequate consumption of water is the greatest cause for the development of stones. The same goes for where your diet is concerned. It is advisable not to follow and eating plan which include too much protein. Foods which are rich in oxalate for example the dark greenish type of vegetables and chocolate can also raise the risk in certain individuals to form kidney stones. Too much sodium (salt) must also be avoided and using a substitute can be a great option. Gaining weight and using particular medications can also be risk factors.
Uncontrollable Risk Factors
White men in their 40’s and older have a higher risk to develop kidney stones compared to other groups. Women in their 50’s have an elevated risk. Hereditary factors can also raise your risk. Particular medical disorders can also heighten your risk. Such conditions include gout, hypertension (high blood pressure) and infections of the urinary tract (UTI’s). However if above-mentioned disorders are treated it will help to prevent the development of kidney stones.
Troops Deployed in Desert-regions have a Higher Risk
Troops who are doing military service in desert-regions like Iraq are highly prone to develop kidney stones. According to doctors, the main cause is dehydration. This happens due to the hot and dry climatic conditions, combined with consuming too little water and their protective clothing. These cause high quantities of mineral deposits in the urine with the tendency to stick together which can develop into kidney stones.
Kidney Stones: The Calcium Dispute
The majority of kidney stones comprise of calcium. However, it is not necessary to avoid foods which are rich in calcium. Including sensible quantities of foods rich in calcium as well as dairy products in your diet, may even lessen your risk to developing new kidney stones. However, this is not applicable to the supplementing of calcium, which was associated with kidney stones forming in certain individuals. It is advisable to consult your dietician or doctor about your consumption of calcium.
What about Home Care regarding your Kidney Stones?
Your healthcare professional may suggest that you use medication for the pain and wait until the stone passes through by itself. During this period, your medical professional may also suggest that you consume ample fluids and water, attempting to keep your urine clear. It is recommended that 8-10 glasses must be taken on a daily basis.
Kidney Stones: The Treatment
Different options for treating kidney stones are available.
Medication can be prescribed by your doctor, which can assist your body in passing your kidney stones. Alpha-blockers, a type of drug will relax the ureters’ inside-walls. The narrow tubes will widen and thus the kidney stones can pass through easier. Usually side-effects are moderate and include dizziness or headaches. Other available kinds of medicine can assist with the prevention of developing new kidney stones.
An ureteroscopy will be the treatment if a kidney stone passed from the kidney and is located near your bladder. During this procedure a thin tube will be positioned through your urinary tract to where the kidney stone is located. A surgical physician will break up the kidney stone and fragments will be removed via the thin tube. However, no incisions in the body will be necessary. Very large kidney stones may be removed via a surgical process.
- ESWL: Shock Wave Lithotripsy
ESWL (extracorporeal chock-wave lithotripsy) is generally the most used medical process to treat the majority of kidney stones. ESWL-therapy uses shock waves with a high level of energy. These shock waves break down the stones converting it into tiny pieces. These tiny pieces can pass easily through your urinary tract. Bruising, pain and bleeding are side effects experienced.
- Analysis of Kidney Stones
After the passing of a kidney stone, your healthcare professional may wish to determine its substance. Calcium-based kidney stones forms approximately 80 percent of all stones. The rest principally consist of cystine, struvite or uric acid. Conducting a chemical analysis of the stone can establish which kind of kidney stone it is. This information can help you to take action in the prevention of developing new stones again.
- Kidney Stones: The Prognosis
When an individual once experienced the passing of a kidney stone, a probability exists that another kidney stone will occur in their lifetime. Due to the hereditary of kidney stones, it has a greater chance that the upcoming generation will inherit it too.
Nowadays, renal disease is on the rise on a worldwide scale! These two important organs in our Urinary System are of utmost importance to live a healthy and pain-free life.
How Does a Kidney Look Like?
The two kidneys which are the waste-cleaners of our bodies have the shape of a bean. They ore located higher up in the cavity of our abdomens, residing against the muscles of our backs. They are situated on each side of our spines, facing each other. On images it can be noticed that our right kidney is located somewhat lower than the one on the left. This is for the accommodation of our livers.
Vitamin-supplementing may Provide Bladder & Kidney Health
Are you experiencing any or these under-mentioned problems?
- Repetitive inflammation of your urinary tract
- Paying several visits to your bathroom during the night
- Any difficulty when you are urinating
- Feeling a consistent need emptying the bladder
- After urinating feels there is some urine left in the bladder
Do any of the above-mentioned problems bother you? Herbal and vitamin supplements can render some health support to your kidney- and bladder health. These supplements can provide some relieve of urinary tract inflammation. This also poses as a natural remedy!
Many problems can be the cause to be unable to empty your bladder completely. However, if you experience problems, consult your doctor because it can be due to a kidney disorder or even to an injury.
It is important to visit your medical professional if you are undergoing kidney dialysis or experience some type of dysfunction. This need to be done before a person starts taking herbal- or vitamin supplements.
Aging can also cause urine-flow disorders. As one gets older, your kidneys’ waste-removal function also decreases. The bladder-, ureters- and urethra muscles lose some strength which causes incapacity to empty your bladder completely. This causes chronic inflammation of the urinary tract.
A remarkable improvement can be accomplished by using dietary supplements with specific minerals, herbs and vitamins. Bearberry (Uva Ursi) taken in combination with Goldenrod, Boldo, B6, Potassium & Magnesium poses a marvellous dietary supplement which supports both bladder and kidney health. This leads to a great improvement in the flow of urine.
The above-mentioned supplements taking in combination also naturally represents a diuretic. This can also enhance your body’s capacity to remove the blood-impurities via your urinary tract. This inhibits urinary-hesitation, whilst the urine stream is improved. Thus kidney- and bladder health are improved which capacitate you to empty your bladder entirely.
It is advisable to visit a doctor practising in natural medicine if you are experiencing difficulties associated with the bladder, urinary tract of kidneys.
Our kidneys have a great responsibility providing various body-functions. Primarily the kidneys filter the bloodstream from urea, metabolites and other elements, turning it into urine which is removed from your body via the urinary tract. They also regulate the blood-plasma volume, blood pressure and glucose. Furthermore, hormones are secreted and therefore the health of your kidneys is vital for your well-being.
A kidney cleanse is a great method keeping your system healthy. Below are some guide lines you can follow:
- Change your eating regimen. Get rid of animal foods like eggs, cheese and meat. These foods contain a lot of protein. Eliminate fatty, greasy & fried foods as well as soda, caffeine, sugar and salt from your diet.
- Take whole wheat grains, instead of white flour products which include pastas & breads.
- Eat plenty of fresh and raw vegetables & fruits.
- Include bananas, asparagus, papaya, watermelon, cucumber, celery, parsley and garlic in your diet.
However, we advise you to consult with a medical professional immediately when you suffer from severe and excruciating pain in the kidney area. As early examination of your body can keep you away from dangerous results.
Even the threat for kidney cancer, should not be ignored at any stage.
What is needed to know regarding symptoms of kidney disease in women:
Infection in kidneys is worst disease for our body. It’s dangerous and much painful .Anyone can suffer from it with different symptoms and results. Men and women both have divergent symptoms and results. You should be to symptoms of kidney disease in women in order to get you cure in the early stage. Less water intake is the main cause of renal disease. Kidney is the major organ of body. By passing all the wastes from our body, the kidney plays a role of filter .If water intake is less than it would be hard for kidney to pass out wastes from body and this creates blockage in kidney and causes infection. Initially it causes inconvenience and pain also in worst case, can become a kidney failure.
In women, the symptoms of kidney disease can be hard to distinguish
Identification at early stage can prevent the prevalent symptoms of kidney sickness in women. This illness begins very slowly and hard to be identified but some symptoms do exists in women which can be noticed and determine the disease .The indications of kidney disease in women are described here with required details. Usually two types of kidney infection found in women are called pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis. It can easily be recognized by you as severe and persistent in nature. Hope now you have full grip over the topic what does a kidney stone look like at whereareyourkidneys.org
How to Keep your Kidneys Healthy
Healthy kidneys, functioning effectively add quality to your life. It is a well known fact that kidney disorders are actually silent killers which will have a detrimental affect on the quality of life. The question is what can we do from our side to keep our kidneys healthy? Yes, there is indeed something you can do about the health of these vital organs. The following approaches can be helpful in keeping your kidneys healthy.
- Keep your Blood Sugar Levels in the Healthy Zone
It is crucial to keep your blood sugar levels in the healthy zone! Diabetes is the number one leading cause of CKD (chronic kidney disease.) Approximately 50 % of diabetics will develop kidney damage and people suffering from diabetes should regularly consult their doctor to have their kidney functions checked.
In cases where diabetes is detected in an early stage, kidney damage caused by the disease can be prevented or reduced. The importance to maintain blood sugar levels at healthy levels can’t be overstated and pharmacists and doctors will assist you with that.
- Blood Pressure Awareness
Hypertension or high blood pressure is the second leading cause of chronic kidney disease. Many people are aware that high blood pressure causes heart attacks and strokes, but are unaware that it poses to be a very common cause of kidney disorders.
It is important to keep track of your blood pressure; 120/80 is the normal level, whilst a level between 120/80 and 130/89 is viewed as pre-hypersensitive. If your blood pressure is at this level, you should make sensible changes to your diet and lifestyle. With your blood pressure at 140/90 and higher, consult your doctor to review the risks and how you can adapt your lifestyle and diet to maintain a healthy blood pressure level. It is vital to have your blood pressure monitored on a regular basis.
In cases where blood pressure is associated with other disorders such as cardio vascular diseases, diabetes and high cholesterol levels, it is highly prone to result in kidney damage.
- Avoid a Sedentary Lifestyle
It is important to keep active and fit which will assist to decrease your blood pressure, resulting in reducing your risk of suffering from Chronic Kidney Disease. If you are currently leading a sedentary lifestyle, it is important to consult with your physician before starting to exercise and it is advisable to choose a type of sport or activity which you like.
- Quit Smoking
Quit the nasty habit of smoking for your own health’s sake! When you are smoking, the blood-flow to your kidneys slows down, with the result that less blood actually reaches your kidneys which lead to the impaired functioning of the kidneys. If you are a smoker, your chance to develop kidney cancer is increased by approximately 50%. A risk not worth taking!
- Follow a Healthy and Sensible Diet to Maintain your Weight
If you follow a healthy and sensible diet, which will keep your weight within normal levels, diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and other disorders which are linked to Chronic Kidney Disease can be prevented.
Watch your intake of salt (sodium) and about a teaspoon (5 to 6 grams) should be taken on a daily basis. To achieve your goal of consuming lesser salt, eat your food without salt and avoid restaurant and processed food. It is advisable that you prepare your food yourself, using fresh ingredients. Your doctor or dietician can give you more information regarding kidney friendly food and nutrition.
- Monitor your Fluid Intake
Despite the fact that clinical studies did not reached consensus about the ultimate fluid intake of water & other substances a person should consume on a daily basis for the maintenance of good health, it has been suggested to drink 3 – 4 pints (1.5 – 2 litres) of water daily.
Drinking a lot of fluid, especially water; assist your kidneys to eliminate substances like urea sodium and other toxic wastes from your body. As reported by Canadian and Australian researchers this can result in a lower risk to develop chronic kidney disease. However, these researchers don’t recommend an over-load of fluids which can lead to side effects.
They suggested that your water intake should be increased at a moderate pace, up to 2 litres on a daily basis, which may decrease the risk of the deterioration of kidney function. Keep into account that the correct quantity of fluid intake will be different for individuals. This can depend on factors such as exercise, gender, health conditions, climate, breast feeding and pregnancy. However, for people who had suffered the inconvenienced, highly painful condition of a kidney stone, it is advisable to consume 2 – 3 litres of water on a daily basis to reduce the risk of developing another stone.
- Avoid the Consumption of Over the Counter Medication
Avoid the taking of over the counter medication regularly. Anti-inflammatory, non-steroidal drugs such as ibuprofen are associated with kidney damage & kidney disorders when used regularly.
These medicines may not pose to be dangerous if your kidneys are functioning effectively or if you just use it in emergency cases. However, if you are suffering from chronic pain, for example back pain or arthritis consult with your physician to discuss controlling your pain in an alternative way, not risking the health of your kidneys.
- Kidney-function Check-up: High Risk Factors
It is important to go for a consultation to have your kidney function examined, when you are suffering from high risk factors, including:
- High Blood Pressure
- Overweight or obesity
- A family history of kidney disease
- If your nationality is Asian, African, Aborigine
- Careful Use of Herbal Remedies and Supplements
Avoid using certain herbal extracts and some vitamin supplements excessively, as it can cause damage to your kidneys. Discuss which herbs and vitamins you want to use with your doctor.
- Foods to Avoid
- Processed deli meats
- Frozen meals
Kidneys in human body in whatever look must be cured as soon as possible for example you can also look at the following points
- Live a Healthy Lifestyle
It is vital to live a healthy lifestyle which includes an effective diet and following an exercise program. This will be beneficial to assist you to achieve your goals where your blood glucose & blood pressure are concerned. Below are steps to follow which will render assistance in keeping your kidneys in a healthy condition:
- Quit the smoking habit
- Include physical activity in your lifestyle
- Get at least 7 – 8 hours sleep every night
- Get in shape and maintain a healthy weight
- Limit your sodium (salt) intake
- Consult a dietician to provide you with a well planned diabetic diet
- Prescribed Medication
It is important to take your medication, as prescribed by your doctor. Your medication will be focussed on your particular needs; these drugs can assist you to achieve your glucose- & blood pressure levels.
- Managing your diabetes
It is important to manage your diabetes which causes sadness, stress or angriness when you are a diabetic. Although you may be perfectly informed how you can stay healthy, it can be troublesome to stick with such “rules”. Stress over a long time can raise both your blood sugar- & blood pressure levels. Some tips to cope with stress include: start a new and interesting hobby, take walks, take up gardening, breathe deeply, take up yoga or just listen to beautiful music.
- Can diabetic kidney disease worsen over time?
Yes, damage to your kidneys, caused by diabetes, can worsen with time. By taking action in keeping your kidneys healthy, kidney damage can be slowed down which may delay or prevent kidney failure. When kidney failure occurs your kidneys become incapable to function effectively with less than 15% of their normal function left. However, it is a fact that the majority of diabetes & kidney disease sufferers won’t experience kidney failure.
- High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) & Kidney Disease
High blood pressure (hypertension) is the second leading cause of CKD (chronic kidney disease).
- What is Hypertension or High Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure represents the force with which your blood hits the walls of the blood vessels in your body whilst the heart is pumping blood. High blood pressure, known as hypertension too, is when the force of the blood on the blood vessels increases, whilst flowing through the body. Aspects which can increase its force include: a higher volume in blood as a result of additional fluid within the blood & narrow, clogged or stiff blood vessels.
The test results of blood pressure are written in a special manner, which represents two numbers with a slash separating them. The result of a blood pressure reading will be written down by a medical provider as 120/80, which represents normal blood pressure. However, when the doctor read you the result he will say 120 over 80.
The majority of healthy people have normal blood pressure, when it remains below 120/80. However, pre-hypertension is when the systolic pressure is 120 – 139, whilst the diastolic pressure is 80 – 89. An individual has high blood pressure when the systolic pressure is 140 or higher or the diastolic pressure is 90 or higher.
People should consult their doctor about their personal blood pressure objectives and how many times they should have a blood pressure check-up.
- What is the effect of high blood pressure on the kidneys?
The blood vessels inside the kidneys can be damaged by high blood pressure, decreasing their capability to function effectively. Blood vessels stretch when the blood’s force flows high in an attempt to allow the blood to flow with more ease. Eventually, this will result in the weakening of the body’s blood vessels due to stretching scars, which include the kidneys’ blood vessels.
- High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease’s Symptoms:
The majority of people don’t experience any symptoms when they have high blood pressure. However, in some cases, headaches will be experienced as a result of high blood pressure.
During the early stages of kidney disease, a person won’t have any symptoms. An individual may experience swelling, known as oedema. This condition occurs when the kidneys are unable to eliminate the extra fluid & salt. Oedema usually emerges in the ankles, feet and legs, whilst less frequently in the face or hands. When the functioning of the kidneys deteriorates to a greater extent, the symptoms below can follow:
- Tiredness and drowsiness
- Loss of appetite
- Sleeping problems
- Struggling to concentrate
- Generalized numbness & itching
- An increase or decrease of urination
- A dry skin
- Losing weight
- Muscle cramps
- A darkening skin
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- The Diagnosis of high blood pressure & kidney disease
A medical provider can make a diagnosis of high blood pressure in cases where various blood pressure tests, frequently repeated during different visits, portrays the systolic blood pressure consistently has a reading of higher than 140, whilst the diastolic blood pressure presents a reading of 90 and higher. A medical provider uses a blood pressure cuff to measure a person’s blood pressure. Such a device can be purchased at drug- and other stores for monitoring blood pressure in your home.
Urine & blood tests are used to diagnose kidney disease.
The Dipstick Test:
A dipstick test will be conducted to observe whether albumin is present in the urine sample. Albumin, a protein present in the blood may enter into the urine where kidney damage occurred. During such a test a chemically treated strip of paper, known as a dipstick is placed into the urine by a health care worker. The urine sample, collected in a medical facility will be tested at the facility or despatched to a laboratory to be analysed. If protein or blood is detected in the urine, the dipstick’s patches will change in colour.
Urine test: albumin to creatinine rate:
The albumin & creatinine are measured by a medical provider to establish the rate between the albumin & creatinine present within the urine. Creatinine poses to be a waste substance within the blood which is filtered inside the kidneys and eliminated within the urine. When the albumin to creatinine rate found in the urine is above 30mg/g, kidney disease may be present.
Blood will be drawn by a medical provider at a suitable medical facility and the sample will be dispatched to a laboratory to be analysed. A medical practitioner may require a blood test for observing the quantity of blood which is filtered by the kidneys every minute, which is known as the eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate).
The test results will give an indication for the following:
- An eGFR – 60 or more falls into the normal range
- An eGFR – lower than 60 – kidney damage is indicated
- An eGFR – 15 or lower – kidney failure may exist
Screening for Kidney Disease
When kidney disease is detected in an early stage it can be treated and a more serious disease & other complications can be prevented. People who have high blood pressure should undergo the following screenings regularly (as per the National Kidney Foundation):
- Blood pressure tests
- urine albumin
Health care professionals will assist determining how frequently people having high blood pressure must be screened.
How the Progress of Kidney Disease resulting from high blood pressure can be prevented or slowed down
The most effective way to prevent or slow down kidney disease resulting from high blood pressure will be to make changes to lower their blood pressure. With such changes medication and lifestyle changes will be combined, like:
- following a healthy diet
- change a sedentary lifestyle to include physical activity
- quit the smoking habit
- keep weight at a healthy level
- to manage stress
Despite what causes the kidney disease, with the increase of high blood pressure, the kidneys can sustain damage. People having kidney disease must strive to keep their blood pressure lower than 140/90.
Medications which are able to lower an individual’s blood pressure are also capable to slow down the progression of kidney disease. However, two kinds of medication which had shown effectiveness to slow down kidney disease’s progress are ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors & ARB’s (angiotensin receptor blockers).
A lot of people need even two or more medicines to keep their blood pressure under control. A diuretic, a type of medication that assists the kidneys to eliminate fluid from the bloodstream, may be prescribed additionally to an ARB or an ACE inhibitor. Other medications which may be required too, are calcium channel blockers, beta blockers and more blood pressure medicines
- Diet & Nutrition
Blood pressure can be lowered when a person follows a healthy diet. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) eating plan may be suggested by the medical provider. The DASH diet focuses on whole grains, fruits, vegetables and foods which are heart friendly and low in sodium content, which frequently comes from salt. However, the DASH diet:
- Has a low cholesterol and fat content
- Suggests less sweets, red meat, added sugars & sweetened beverages.
- Have a high fibre, protein and nutrient content.
This diet may also be suggested for people who already suffer from kidney disease. Limiting sodium and liquid consumption may assist to decrease oedema, whilst lowering the blood pressure.
Health care professionals may suggest that kidney disease sufferers, eat a moderate or a reduced intake of foods containing protein, whilst the benefits of a reduced amount of protein in an individual’s diet, is still under scrutiny.
When proteins break down it become waste substances which the kidneys have to filter and eliminate from the bloodstream. When a person consumes more protein than needed by the body, it may place a burden on the kidneys and may result in the declining of kidney function at a more rapid rate. On the other hand, malnutrition may be a result of too low protein consumption, in a case where the body don’t get enough nutrients. People who have kidney disease and are following a protein restricted diet must be monitored via blood tests to establish whether their nutrient levels are too low.
Overweight or obese people should try to decrease their weight with 7 – 9% within the 1st year of undergoing treatment for their high blood pressure. Losing weight can lower the risk of health problems associated with high blood pressure. However, a person’s BMI (body mass index) defines his/her weight, which is a measurement of the person’s weight relative to their height to be 25-29. When the person’s BMI is 30 or above, he/she is considered to be obese. The objective is to keep the BMI under 25 to keep the blood pressure in control.
Individuals, who are smoking, should quit this bad habit. Blood vessels can be damaged by smoking, whilst it raises the risk of developing high blood pressure & also worsen the health problems associated with high blood pressure.
Blood pressure can be lowered by regular physical exercise, whilst the risks to develop other health issues can be reduced. Your doctor can give you advice about which kind of exercise will be safe as well as about how much. The majority of people should aim to do 30 – 60 minutes of exercise on a daily basis. Physical activity can be done at once or it can be break down into shorter periods – a minimum of 10 minutes each. Dancing, bowling, brisk walking, bike riding, garden work and house cleaning are considered as moderate activities.
By learning how to cope with stress, relax and manage life issues can result in improving physical and emotional health. More actions which may assist to reduce stress levels include:
- Practicing tai chi or yoga
- Focusing on anything which is peaceful and calm
- Listening to music
- 3. Good Pasture Syndrome
Goodpasture syndrome is a disorder where a group of severe diseases affect a sufferer’s kidneys and lungs. This syndrome includes the under-mentioned conditions:
Glomerulonephritis is a condition where there is inflammation in the glomeruli of the kidneys. The glomeruli consist of very small clusters which loop the blood vessels inside the kidneys. The glomeruli assist by filtering toxic substances and additional water eliminating it from the blood.
- GBM (anti-glomerular basement membrane)
GBM (anti-glomerular basement membrane) antibodies are present. The GBM is composed of proteins and collagen and forms a fragment of the glomeruli.
Bleeding inside the lungs
With the condition of Goodpasture syndrome, a particular area of collagen is targeted by antibodies which were produced by your immune cells. The collagen located in your kidneys and lungs comes under attack of these antibodies.
During the 1919 influenza pandemic this syndrome was described for the first time by Ernest Goodpasture. He stated in his report that a patient died due to kidney failure and bleeding inside the lungs. At that stage there was no diagnostic tools available, thus it is unknown if the patient died from vasculitis or truly had Goodpasture syndrome.
Vasculitis, an auto-immune disorder, is a disease where the immune system of the body attacks its own organs and cells. As a result of inflammation inside the blood vessels the same lung & kidney problems occur. Goodpasture syndrome is also known as anti-GBM disorder, although anti-GBM disorder is just one of the causes which results in pulmonary-renal syndromes, which includes Goodpasture syndrome. If Goodpasture syndrome is not diagnosed early followed by treatment, it is fatal.
- The Causes of Goodpasture Syndrome
It is still not fully clear what causes Goodpasture syndrome. However, it seems that people who are using hair dyes or who smoke are more prone to be at risk to develop this illness. Other factors which can raise an individual’s risk, includes: exposure to metallic dust, hydrocarbon fumes, and drugs like cocaine. It is also viable that genetics may play a role; there are a low number of cases reported which occurred in multiple family members.
- Goodpasture Syndrome’s symptoms:
The initial symptoms of Goodpasture syndrome may include: vomiting, fatigue, nausea & weakness. In general the lungs are affected just before or simultaneously with the kidneys. Then symptoms include coughing with blood visible and shortness of breath. From the stage of the initial symptoms, the disease spread rapidly to the lungs. At the stage where the kidneys become affected the symptoms can include: high blood pressure, foamy urine or blood present in the urine and swelling occurs in the legs.
- The Diagnosis of Goodpasture’s Syndrome
This kidney disorder is diagnosed by the following tests:
During this test a urine sample will be collected and a technician will place a dipstick, a chemically treated strip of paper into the sample. If blood or protein is present in the sample, the dipstick-patches will change colour. High protein levels and a high red blood cell count within the urine sample are an indication of kidney damage
- X-rays of the Chest
X-rays of the chest area will be conducted at a hospital or outpatient centre by a technician, whilst a radiologist will monitor the images. Any abnormalities present within the lungs will be visible on the x-rays.
- Blood Test
Blood will be drawn at an appropriate health facility and be dispatched to an analysis laboratory. Such a blood test can reveal whether anti GBM anti-bodies are present.
- A Biopsy
During a biopsy a fragment of kidney tissue will be harvested which will be examined under a microscope. Such a procedure will be conducted at a health care facility, whilst a local anaesthetic or light sedation will be applied. Imaging techniques like an ultrasound or computerized tomography scan will be used towards guiding the needle inside the kidney. A pathologist will examine the kidney tissue in a laboratory to make a diagnosis. Such a test can portray whether crescent-shaped changes occurred inside the glomeruli & anti-body lines which are latched unto the GBM.
- The Treatment of Goodpasture Syndrome
Generally Goodpasture Syndrome is treated as described below:
- Corticosteroid Medications:
These kinds of medicines are suppressing the auto-immune response of the body.
- Immunosuppressive Medications:
Immunosuppressive medicines, for example cyclophosphamide is used to prevent the body’s immune system to create anti-bodies.
Plasmapheresis is a technique where a machine is used for the removal of blood from your body, for the separation of particular cells out of the plasma and then returning only the cells to an individual’s body, whilst the anti-GBM anti-bodies stays within the plasma, without returning it to the body.
Immunosuppressive medicines may be prescribed for a period of 6 – 12 months, whilst plasmapheresis normally continued for some weeks. In the majority of cases the bleeding within the lungs stops, whilst no permanent damage is caused to the lungs. However, kidney damage may last long. In cases where kidney failure occurs, dialysis, treatments that filter the kidneys, are conducted whilst it may be necessary to do a kidney transplant.
- PKD (Polycystic Kidney Disease)
Polycystic kidney disease, which is a genetic disease, causes a lot of cysts which grow inside the kidneys. Cysts caused by PKD result in hypertension (high blood pressure), whilst it also causes problems in the blood vessels located in the heart and brain and may also lead to cysts within the liver.
- Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
The condition of autosomal dominant PKD is frequently diagnosed in later adulthood. Therefore health care professionals called this condition adult PKD. Often, no symptoms or signs present themselves during autosomal dominant PKD, until the cysts grow to the size of a half inch or more.
- Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease
The disorder of Autosomal recessive PKD, which affects the kidneys and liver, is an uncommon genetic disease. Autosomal recessive PKD’s symptoms many times emerge during the earliest stages of life and can appear inside the womb already, thus health care professionals call the condition infantile PKD.
- Nutrition and Diet applicable for Polycystic Kidney Disease
To be able to keep your blood pressure under control, it might be necessary to change what you eat if you have PKD. A healthy diet can assist to keep your blood pressure levels lower. The DASH diet may be suggested by a dietician or health care professional. The DASH diet focuses on vegetables, fruits, foods with low sodium content and whole grains.
- IgA Nephropathy
Scientists consider IgA nephropathy to be an auto-immune disease of the kidneys, where the disease is a result of your immune system which harms the kidneys. Individuals who suffer from IgA nephropathy have a heightened IgA blood level which has a less than normal level of galactose, a special sugar.
Other anti-bodies which are circulating through your bloodstream consider these IgA which lacks galactose, as foreign. These other anti-bodies then latched onto the galactose-lacking IGA, forming a clump, which is also known as an immune complex. Damage and inflammation are caused as some clumps stuck to the nephron’s glomerulus.
IgA nephropathy can be hereditary. Researchers have recently discovered that several genetic markers may play a role when it comes to the development of this kidney disorder. IgA nephropathy may be linked to intestinal or respiratory infections too as well as the response of the body’s immune system to these infections.
- Is IgA Nephropathy a common disorder?
After diabetes and high blood pressure, IgA nephropathy is almost the most common kidney disorder, which can appear at any age. However, this kidney disease usually occurs in the teenage years up to the late 30’s. In the USA, men are up to two times more prone to develop this disease than women. It is also a disorder which appears worldwide, although IgA nephropathy affects Asians and Caucasians to a greater extent.
- Who is more prone to develop IgA Nephropathy?
- An individual with an IgA nephropathy or Henoch-Schönlein purpura disorder who has such a family history. Henoch-Schönen purpura is a condition causing the body’s small blood vessels to become infected and leak.
- If the individual is Caucasian or Asian.
- The individual is a teenage male or in his late 30’s.
- IgA Nephropathy’s Symptoms
IgA nephropathy is a silent disease for many years, whilst it can take up to decades presenting no symptoms. When the symptoms appear, hematuria (blood in urine) is highly common. Blood in your urine may emerge during or after a sore throat, a cold or infections of the respiratory tract. In general hematuria is a sign that the glomeruli are damaged.
You may be able to observe the blood, whilst the urine can take on the colour of cola, tea or turn pink. In other individuals their urine may appear bloody or dark. In other cases it can be so small and can just be detected by special medical testing.
Albuminuria, a condition where an individual’s urine has a heightened amount of albumin, which is a protein present within the blood with large quantities of protein, within the urine. However, albumin is the principal protein within the blood; with healthy kidneys proteins are kept inside the blood stream and not leaked into the urine.
The blood’s effectiveness to absorb additional fluid is affected with albumin leaking into the urine. Swelling or also known as oedema occurs when there is too much fluid within the body, oedema frequently causes swelling in the feet, ankles or legs with infrequent swelling in the face or hands. Albuminuria also causes the occurrence of foamy urine. Some individuals suffering from IgA nephrophathy have albuminuria & hematuria.
Over a period of ten to twenty years, adults who have IgA nephropathy, approximately 20 – 40% develop the end phase of kidney disease. Symptoms of end phase kidney disease can include the following:
- High blood pressure
- No urination or just a little
- Dry skin