Pyelonephritis is a type of kidney infection, generally caused by bad bacteria which originated in the bladder. This disorder many times occurs due to the following factors:
- Urinary tract infections or you can say (UTI’s)
- Infections which originated in the bladder
- Using of instruments like catheters for draining urine
- Cystoscopes for examining the urethra and bladder
- Surgery conducted in your urinary tract
- Prostate enlargement
- Ineffective urine flow because of kidney stones
- Defects of your urinary tract
Furthermore, pyelonephritis can also be attracted by bowel organisms which cause infections in your urinary tract. Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli are such examples.
Infections can also develop, coming from hospitals. Such infections occur because of bacterial organisms, like Enterococci and Coliforms. Pseudomonas or Kiebsiella spp are organisms which are not usually encountered in a community. However, they can potentially lead to UTI’s (urinary tract infections).
The symptoms associated with pyelonephritis include: side pain, back pain, painful urination, groin pain, frequent and urgent urination, abdominal pain, burning sensation whilst urination, blood & pus in your urine, fever, vomiting and nausea. However, in extreme pyelonephritis cases, a patient can be experiencing delirium.
To diagnose pyelonephritis, the medical professional will conduct a urine test, to be able to identify the types of bacteria as well as formations known as casts, which consist of white blood-cells. These casts have an appearance like tubes inside your kidneys. However, x-rays can also be taken to identify abnormalities inside the ureters, bladder and kidneys.
Conducting a test, called urine dipstick, it can be established if a pyelonephritis infection is present. During this test the physician will look whether white blood cells (leukocytes) and nitrite is found in your urine. Some cases will require a blood test to be sure about the infection’s source.
In the case of pyelonephritis, antibiotics will be prescribed for some weeks. Intravenous antibiotics are generally used in the originating phases of treatment. However, in the case of mild infections, oral therapy is preferential.
The following antibiotics can be used for treating pyelonephritis:
Surgery may be necessary in cases where the infection caused anatomic abnormalities already.
Patients with leukocytosis and very high fevers should be admitted to a hospital where intravenous fluids, for hydration can be administered. Intravenous antibiotics should be dispensed immediately.
When various antibiotics are used in treatment, the serial white-blood count procedure should be followed and closely monitored. Intravenously administered antibiotics must be continued up till the stage where the patient’s fever is over for a minimum of 24 – 48 hours. When the temperature of a patient is normal, antibiotics should be continuously applied for approximately two weeks.
Intravenous fluids are administered as a fluid substitute due to the patient’s decreased consumption of fluids as well as to maximize the patient’s output of urine. Afterwards the treatment, some suggested diets can be followed as prevention of recurring UTI’s.
The patient should increase the intake of fluid and it is advisable to drink blueberry or cranberry juice. Milk products, containing probiotic bacteria are suggested too.